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For those of you who have a fascination with the evolution of HDTV I want to bring to your attention one book in particular. The author, Dr. Jeffery Hart, and I have been friends for 20 years. His insights into the global electro-political landscape will open your eyes to the difficulty that HDTV had in taking root here in the United States. This book is available through Amazon.com and through our bookstore. It's a fascinating read and not enough have read it due, perhaps, to its academia heritage and credentials. But don't let its pedigree stop you. HDTV is a grand subject that is on the thresholds of delivering an enormous impact around the world. It has a cultural value that makes it more significant than any other communications tool yet devised. Of course, you have to take my word on that since we have only a tiny proof of the pudding yet showing.

I am including in this column the chapters in Jeff's fascinating book. It's not for everyone, of course, but for those who must take on leadership roles in the 21st century it is indispensable I more than urge you to acquire it from your local library or from our book store. We will be using many of its chapters as tutorials on topics to be further discussed here on the HDTV Magazine blog. I have also included a very useful list of Acronyms straight out of the book, which I suggest you save.

Technology, Television, and Competition: The Politics of Digital TV

Not a Pretty Picture:
The Politics of Advanced Television

Jeffrey A. Hart

Contents of Jeff's book.



Chapter 1. Introduction 1
Chapter 2. The Institutional Setting for HDTV 23
Chapter 3. Digital Convergence 85
Chapter 4. HDTV in Japan 118
Chapter 5. HDTV in the United States 139
Chapter 6. HDTV in Europe 162
Chapter 7. Digital Television in the United States 203
Chapter 8. Digital Television in Europe and Japan 244
Chapter 9. Conclusions 279

High definition television (HDTV) became a contentious issue in American politics after the European Community rejected a bid in 1986 by the Japanese national broadcasting company, Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK), to have its HDTV production method adopted as an international standard. The U.S. government supported the Japanese effort initially, but after the European rejection, many people in the United States began the question that support. For some, the Japanese HDTV initiative raised concerns about the relative decline in U.S. competitiveness, even in high technology industries, and the need to respond more effectively to the increased competition from Japan and Western Europe. For others, HDTV was important because it might affect a wide range of industries -- broadcasting, film, video, consumer electronics, computers, and telecommunications -- and therefore needed to be considered more carefully before buying into the Japanese approach. As a result, the United States began a process to choose a standard for advanced TV that took until April 1997 to reach its conclusion. The U.S. choice of a digital television (DTV) standard forced both Japan and Europe to reexamine their earlier decisions on HDTV. This book is about the forces behind these events.

The research for this book was supported by research grants and contracts from the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress, Motorola, Inc., the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, the Electronic Industries Association, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, the Advanced Research Projects Administration of the Department of Defense, the Technology Transfer Institute, the College of Arts and Sciences of Indiana University, the West European Studies Department of Indiana University, the Alfred Sloan Foundation, and Stanford Resources, Inc.

I would like to thank the following individuals for their help and encouragement: François Bar, Michael Borrus, Joel Brinkley, Joseph Castellano, Alan Cawson, Stephen Cohen, Dale Cripps, Warren Davis, Joseph Donahue, Darcy Gerbarg, Larry Irving, Greg Kasza, Hans Kleinsteuber, Ellis Krauss, Stefanie Lenway, Junji Matsuzaki, David Mentley, Jörg Meyer-Stamer, Ed Miller, Tom Murtha, Russ Neuman, Elie Noam, Greg Noble, Aseem Prakash, Jerry Pearlman, Harmeet Sawhney, William Schreiber, Pete Seel, Gary Shapiro, Marko Slusarczuk, Alvy Ray Smith, Sid Topol, Laura Tyson, Adam Watson-Brown, and John Zysman.

Research assistance for this book was provided by the following current and former students at Indiana University: George Candler, Sangbae Kim, Mark Marone, Craig Ortsey, Khalil Osman, Aseem Prakash, and Robert Reed. John Thomas co-authored an earlier version of Chapter 6.

List of Acronyms

ABC American Broadcasting Corporation
ACATS Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Services
ACTV Advanced Compatible Television
AEA American Electronics Association
ALTV Association for Low-Power Television
AMST Association of Maximum Service Telecasters
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ARD Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Rundfunkanstalten Deutschlands
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency (see also DARPA)
ATM asynchronous transfer mode
ATRC Advanced Television Research Consortium
ATSC Advanced Television Standards Committee
AT&T American Telephone and Telegraph
ATTC Advanced Television Testing Center
ATV advanced television
BBC British Broadcasting Company
BCG Boston Consulting Group
BBC British Digital Broadcasting
BIB British Interactive Broadcasting
BRITE Basic Research in Industrial Technologies for Europe
BSB British Satellite Broadcasting
BskyB British Sky Broadcasting
BSS broadcast satellite services
BTA Broadcasting Technology Association
CATV community antenna television
CBS Columbia Broadcasting System
CCD charge-coupled device
CCIR Comité Consultatif International de Radio-Diffusion
CECC Consumer Electronics Capital Corporation
CEMA Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Association
CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
CEO chief executive officer
CICATS Computer Industry Committee on Advanced Television Standards
CIF common image format
CLT Compagnie Luxembourgeoise de Télévision
CNCL Commission Nationale de la Communication et des Libertés
COFDM coded orthogonal frequency division multiplex
COO chief operating officer
CRT cathode ray tube
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (see also ARPA)
DBS direct broadcast satellite
DG Directorate General (European Union)
DIVINE digital video narrowband emission
DM deutsche mark
DSS digital satellite service
DTH direct to home
DTN Digital Television Network
DTV digital television
DTVJ DirecTV Japan
DVB Digital Video Broadcasting
DVD digital versatile disk
EACEM European Association of Consumer Electronics Manufacturers
EBU European Broadcasting Union
EDTV enhanced definition television
EIA Electronic Industries Association (new name: Electronic Industries Alliance)
EIAJ Electronic Industries Association of Japan (new name: see JEITA)
EPG electronic program guide
ESPRIT European Strategic Program for Research and Development in
Information Technology
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
EU European Union
Eureka European Research Coordinating Agency
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FSS fixed satellite services
GA Grand Alliance
GDL Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
GI General Instrument
HBO Home Box Office
HD-MAC high definition multiplexed analog components
HDTV high definition television
IBA Independent Broadcasting Authority (UK)
IDTV improved definition television
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
INTV Association of Independent Television Stations
ISDB integrated services digital broadcasting
ISDN integrated services digital network
ITC Independent Television Commission
ITU International Telegraphic Union
JEITA Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association
JESSI Joint European Semiconductor Silicon Initiative
JSAT Japan Satellite Broadcasting
JSB Japan Satellite Broadcasting
LPTV low power television
MAC multiplexed analog components
MHz megahertz
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MITI Ministry of International Trade and Industry
MMBG Multimedia Betriebsgesellschaft
MOU memorandum of understanding
MPAA Motion Picture Association of America
MPEG Motion Picture Experts Group
MPT Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications
MST Association of Maximum Service Telecasters
MSTV Association for Maximum Service Television
MUSE multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding
MTV Music Television
NAB National Association of Broadcasters
NACB National Association of Commercial Broadcasters
NACS National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors
NBC National Broadcasting Company
NCTA National Cable Television Association
NHK Nipon Hoso Kyokai (Japan National Broadcasting)
NII National lnformation Infrastructure
NPRM Notice of Proposed Rule Making
NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration
NTL National Telecommunications Limited
NTN Nippon Television Network
NTSC National Television Standards Committee
OfTel Office of Telecommunications (UK)
OMB Office of Management and Budget
ORTF Office de Radio-diffusion Télévision Française
PAL phased alternation by line
PBS Public Broadcasting System
PTT postal, telegraphic, and telecommunications agency
QAM quadrature amplitude modulation
RACE Research and Development for Advanced Communications Technology
in Europe
RAI Radio Audironi Italiane, later Radiotelevisione Italiane
RCA Radio Corporation of America
RTL Radiodiffusion-Télévision Luxembourgeoise
SC Spectrum Compatible
SDTV standard definition television
SECAM séquential couleur à mémoire
Sematech Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
SES Société Européenne des Satellites
SMATV satellite master antenna television
SMPTE Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
TDF Télédiffusion de France
UHF ultra high frequency
VCR videocassette recorder
VHF very high frequency
VHSIC Very High-Speed Integrated Circuits
VSB vestigial sideband
WARC World Administrative Radio Conference
WAZ Westfälisch Algemeine Zeitung

Posted by Dale Cripps, June 17, 2005 9:02 AM

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About Dale Cripps

Dale Cripps is a professional journalist who has focused two thirds of his career on the subject of high-definition television. Upon completing his education in business and service in the military he formed Cripps and Associates, South Pasadena, California, in 1964, which operated as a market-development company for aerospace services. In 1983 he turned to television and began what has become a 20 year campaign to pioneer HDTV. For fifteen of those years he published the well-regarded HDTV Newsletter (an international monthly written for television professionals). During much of this same time he also served as the HDTV-Technical Editor for "Widescreen Review Magazine." On November 16, 1998 he launched the Internet distributed HDTV Magazine, which remains the only consumer publication devoted exclusively to high-definition television. In April of 2002 he co-founded with Tedson Meyers of Coudert Bros, the High-definition Television Association of America, which is presently based in Washington DC. Cripps is the president of this organization. Mr. Cripps is a charter member of the Academy of Digital Television Pioneers and honored by that organization with the DTV Press Leadership Award of 2002. He makes his home in Oregon.